CWE-308 使用单一因素认证机制

Use of Single-factor Authentication

结构: Simple

Abstraction: Base

状态: Draft

被利用可能性: High


The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.


While the use of multiple authentication schemes is simply piling on more complexity on top of authentication, it is inestimably valuable to have such measures of redundancy. The use of weak, reused, and common passwords is rampant on the internet. Without the added protection of multiple authentication schemes, a single mistake can result in the compromise of an account. For this reason, if multiple schemes are possible and also easy to use, they should be implemented and required.


  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 287 cwe_View_ID: 1000 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 287 cwe_View_ID: 699 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 654 cwe_View_ID: 1000

  • cwe_Nature: PeerOf cwe_CWE_ID: 309 cwe_View_ID: 1000


Language: {'cwe_Class': 'Language-Independent', 'cwe_Prevalence': 'Undetermined'}


范围 影响 注释
Access Control Bypass Protection Mechanism If the secret in a single-factor authentication scheme gets compromised, full authentication is possible.


Architecture and Design


Use multiple independent authentication schemes, which ensures that -- if one of the methods is compromised -- the system itself is still likely safe from compromise.


In both of these examples, a user is logged in if their given password matches a stored password:

bad C

unsigned char check_passwd(char plaintext) {
ctext = simple_digest("sha1",plaintext,strlen(plaintext), ... );
//Login if hash matches stored hash
if (equal(ctext, secret_password())) {

bad Java

String plainText = new String(plainTextIn);
MessageDigest encer = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA");
byte[] digest = password.digest();
//Login if hash matches stored hash
if (equal(digest,secret_password())) {

This code fails to incorporate more than one method of authentication. If an attacker can steal or guess a user's password, they are given full access to their account. Note this code also exhibits CWE-328 (Reversible One-Way Hash) and CWE-759 (Use of a One-Way Hash without a Salt).


映射的分类名 ImNode ID Fit Mapped Node Name
CLASP Using single-factor authentication